Glossary of Terms | Detroit Band Saw

Glossary of Terms


The degree of conformity of a measurement to a standard or a true value. In metal band sawing, accuracy is usually measured in thousandths of an inch per linear inch of deviation from a theoretical perpendicularity and parallelism to the plane of the horizontal bandsaw bed.

Age Hardening

A process of aging that causes a change in properties. This change occurs slowly at room temperature and more rapidly at higher temperatures. This process increases both strength and hardness, but usually results in decreased ductility.


American Iron and Steel Institute AlloySteel containing significant quantities of alloying elements added to cause changes in the mechanical and/or physical properties.


Heating a metal to a specific temperature and then cooling the metal at a controlled rate, for the purpose of achieving one or more possible effects, including reduced hardness, better machinability, or reduced stress. There are several different types on annealing processes.


American Society for Testing Materials.


A solid solution in iron, of carbon or other solutes.

Back Clearance Angle

The angle of the back of a bandsaw blade tooth.

Band Speed

The rate at which the band saw blade moves across the work to be cut. The rate is usually measured in surface feet per minute (s.f.m.) or meters per minute.

Band Tension

Tautness of the band saw blade caused by forcing the idler band wheel away from the drive band wheel. Measured in pounds per square inch.

Band Wheels

Wheels around which the band saw blade is tensioned.

Beam Strength

The strength of a band saw blade measured by its ability to resist deflection. The four major factors contributing to beam strength are the width of the blade, the gauge or the thickness of the blade, the amount of blade tension, and the span.

Beam Strength

The resistance a band saw blade has to back deflection when subjected to the edge thrust of feed pressure.

Bend Test

A test to determine the ductility of metal. In metal cutting terms it applies to the flexing of a band saw blade to test the strength of the weld.

Bi-Metal-A high

speed steel edge material electron beam welded to a spring steel back. Such a construction provides the best combination of cutting performance and fatigue life.

Billet-A solid bar of semi

finished metal that has been hot worked by extrusion, forging, or rolling. Ranges in size from a minimum of about 1 1/2″ to a maximum of about 40″.

Blade Tension

The direct pull (in pounds) on the bandsaw blade.

Blade Width

The dimension of the band saw blade from tooth tip to blade back.

Brinell Hardness

A test for determining the hardness of a metal by forcing a hard steel or carbide ball, of specified diameter, into the test material under a specified load.

Bundle Cutting

Putting multiple work pieces in an even stack to cut more than one piece at a time.


Fixed costs, also called “overhead”.


Deviation from straightness of the band saw blade. When the blade is laid out flat it is positive camber if the curvature is in the direction of the teeth, and negative camber if the curvature is away from the teeth.

Carbon Steel

Steel containing carbon up to about 2% and only residual amounts of the other elements except those added for de-oxidization. Typically used for saw cutting non-ferrous and wood materials.


Rumbling sound in the bandsaw caused by trying to take too heavy a cut. The sound comes from overloading the horizontal bandsaw or vertical bandsaw.


A small fragment of material removed by each tooth on the cutting edge of the band saw blade.

Chip Clearance

The gullet area between two teeth on a band saw blade.

Carbide Tipped

Tooth with carbide tips welded to a high-strength alloy back, resulting in a longer lasting, smoother cutting blade.

Carbon Steel Blades

A band saw blade made from carbon steel where the teeth have been hardened to a greater hardness than the back.

Case Hardening

Hardening a ferrous alloy so that the outer portion is much harder than the inner portion. There are several different methods or processes for case hardening.


Noise that sounds like a dull rumble caused by any number of factors including overfeeding, incorrect tooth selection, or improper band speed.

Chip Load

The average amount of tooth penetration into the material detennined by dividing the feed rate by the blade speed and multiplying the dividend by the number of teeth per foot of band saw blade.

Chip Weld

The bonding of a chip or portion of a chip to a tooth face. This is caused by softening the chip by elevated temperatures and subjecting the softened chip to extreme pressure.

Cold Work

Permanent strain produced in a metal by an external force causing plastic deformation. Usually increases hardness.


See Cutting Fluid

Cutting Fluid

A liquid used to dissipate heat and lubricate the band saw blade teeth. The cutting fluid provides other benefits such as flushing the debris from the gullet.

Cutting Rate

The speed of cut measured in square inches of material cut per minute.


The concaved surface of material cut produced when the band saw blade deflects from a perpendicular path.

Depth of Penetration

The distance into the material the tooth tip penetrates for each cut.

Distance of Cut

The distance the band saw blade travels from the point it enters the work to the point where the material is completely cut through.


The ability of a metal to deform physically without fracturing.

E.T.S. (Every Tooth Set)

Each tooth is alternately set left then right, used generally in woodworking and for non-ferrous metals. Also known as alternate set. Spring Steel blades only.

Elastic Limit

The maximum stress to which a material may be subjected without any strain remaining after release of stress.


The phenomenon leading to fracture under repeated or fluctuating stresses having a maximum value less than the tensile strength of the material. Fatigue fractures are progressive, beginning as minute cracks that grow under action of fluctuating.

Fatigue Life

The number of cycles a band saw blade can sustain prior to failure or how long will a tool last before it fatigues and fails.


The pressure exerted by the workpiece against the cutting edge of a bandsaw blade expressed in pounds.

Feed Force

The pressure exerted by band saw blades against the work piece measured in pounds.

Feed Rate

The linear travel of the workpiece into the band saw blade, usually expressed in inches per minute.

Feed Rate

The linear travel of band saw blades measured in inches per minute.

Feed Traverse Rate

The speed (in inches per minute) the band saw frame travels without cutting.


Relating to or containing iron.


The surface condition of a work piece.

Flame Hardening

Quench hardening in which the heat is directly applied by flame.

Flex Back

Band saw blade with hardened teeth but a relatively soft back.


Physically deforming metal into desired shapes with compressive force. This can be done with or without dies.

Free Machining

Characteristics of metals that make them easier to saw.


The thickness of the back of a band saw blade measured in thousandths of an inch.

Gray Cast Iron

A cast iron that gives a gray fracture due to the presence of flake graphite. Often called gray iron.


The space between two consecutive bandsaw blade teeth.


The space within the curved area between two bandsaw blade teeth.

Gullet Capacity

The amount of chip that can curl up into the gullet area of a bandsaw blade before the smooth curl becomes distorted.

Gullet Depth

The distance from the top of a tooth to the bottom of the gullet.

High Speed Steel

Tool steels which are specifically designed to maintain high hardness at elevated temperatures. Typical high speed steels used for band saw blade teeth include M2, matrix, and M42.

Hot Roll

A metal reduced in thickness by heating and then pressing between rollers.

Hard Back

A type of high carbon, spring tempered back, saw blade.

Hook Tooth

A tooth form consisting of a shallow gullet and widely spaced teeth having a positive raker angle.


A heavy malleable ductile magnetic silver-white metallic element that readily mists in moist air, occurs native in meteorites and is in most igneous rocks.


The slot made in a work piece by the band saw blade.


A characteristic of a cutting fluid that reduces frictional contact between the metal being cut and the bandsaw tooth face.


The relative ease of machining a metal.


Introducing nitrogen into a solid alloy by holding at a suitable temperature in contact with a nitrogenous material usually ammonia of the molten cyanide of appropriate composition.


The number of teeth per inch in a bandsaw blade.


The tips of teeth on a bandsaw blade.


Chemical surface treatment of metals to remove oxides.


The number of teeth per inch on a band saw blade.

Quench Hardening

Hardening a ferrous alloy by austenitizing and then rapid cooling.

Rake Angle

The angle formed by the tooth face with respect to a perpendicular line from the back edge of a band saw blade.

Raker Set

The saw tooth pattern in which one tooth is set to the right, one tooth is set to the left, and one tooth is unset.

Rake Angle

The angle the tooth face makes with respect to a perpendicular line from the back edge of the blade. It is positive when the tooth angles forward in the direction of the cutting action and negative when it angles backward from the direction of the cutting action.

Raker Set

A saw tooth pattern in which one tooth is set right, the next to the left and the third is straight on band saw blades.

Regular Tooth (Conventional tooth)

A tooth form consisting of a deep gullet with a smooth radius at the bottom.


The bending of teeth in a saw blade to the left and/or right of center. The setting of teeth enables a saw blade to cut straighter, to clear the chips from the kerf, and to allow the back of the band to clear the cut and not bind.

Side Clearance

The difference in dimension between the set of the teeth and the back of the band saw blade. It provides space for maneuvering the band in contour cuts, prevents lead when making straight cuts and minimizes transfer of frictional heat to the work.

Skip Tooth

A tooth form consisting of a shallow gullet with widely spaced teeth to provide for ample chip clearance. 0° rake angle.

Spring Steel Backer

Tool steel is attached to a flexible steel backer. Alloyed back of blade.


When one or more teeth are pulled or break out of a band saw blade.


Society of Automotive Engineers.

Saw Guides

The rollers and/or carbide blocks on both sides of the band saw blade which secure the blade so that the cutting action of the saw blade may occur.


A coating of oxide on the surface of metals.


The offset of some or all of the teeth on a band saw blade to provide side clearance so that the back of the blade clears the material as the blade passes through.


Sawing blanks or “slugs'” for subsequent machining operation.

Stress Relieving

Heating to a suitable temperature, holding long enough to reduce residual stresses.

Structural Shape

A piece of metal in anyone of several designs including “H” beams, “I'” beams, channels, angle iron, tubing and others as designated by the iron and steel industries. A shape generally must have at least 1 of its dimensions (excluding length) 3 inches or greater. Smaller shapes are often classified as “Bar Size Shapes”.

Tack Welds

Small scattered welds used to hold workpieces when nesting.


In heat treatment, reheating hardened steel or cast iron for deereasing the hardness and increasing the toughness.

Tooth Face

The surface of a band saw blade tooth on which a chip forms.

Tooth Form

The shape of the tooth, which includes spacing, rake angle, and gullet capacity. Industry terms include variable, variable positive, standard, skip, and hook.

Tooth Life

The useful life of a band saw blade measured in square inches of material cut by the blade.

Tooth Pitch

The distance (in inches) between tooth tips on bandsaw blades.

Tooth Set

The pattern in which teeth are offset from the band saw blade. Industry terms include raker, alternate, and wavy.


The ability of a metal to deform plastically before fracturing.


The alignment of the band saw blade on the band wheel so that it is properly in line with the band wheel flanges and saw guides.


The tendency of a band saw blade to spiral after use.

Wavy Set

A saw tooth pattern having one group of teeth set to the right and the next group set to the left to give the appearance of a wave viewed from the top of the band saw blade.

Width of Cut

The distance the bandsaw tooth travels continuously “across the work.”. The point where a tooth enters the work to the point where that same tooth exits the work.

Work Hardening

Hardening of a work piece caused by cold working and failure to penetrate the metal by a band saw blade. May be caused by dull blades improper blade selection, excessive band speed or improper feed force.