Coolants and Lubricants
Cutting fluids are various fluids that are used in machining to cool and lubricate the cutting tool. There are various kinds of metalworking fluids, which include oils, oil-water emulsions, pastes, gels, and mists. They may be made from petroleum distillates, plant oils, or other raw ingredients.
Depending on context and on which type of cutting fluid is being considered, it may be referred to as cutting fluid, metal cutting oil, cutting compound, coolant, machining coolant, lubricant, or machine shop lubricant. Every kind of machining (e.g., turning machines, boring machines, drilling machine tools, milling machine, broaching machine tool, grinding machine, sawing machines, shaping machine, planing machine, reaming machine, tapping machines) can potentially benefit from one kind of cutting fluid or another, depending on workpiece material. (Cast iron and brass are usually machined dry. Interrupted cuts such as milling with carbide cutters are usually recommended to be used dry due to damage to the cutters caused by thermoshock.)